1. Polybius, The Roman Army: How did the Greek Polybius explain the success of Rome in conquering the Mediterranean? What is arete’ (virtus) depicted? What does this document tell you about the relationship between the Greeks and the Romans in the second century BC? What about differences you can generalize between Greeks and Romans?

2. Caesar, Gallic Wars: How did Julius Caesar depict his own agency in the wars against the Gauls? What would you see his definition of virtus was? How are the Gauls depicted in this document and what does this tell you about the relationship between Rome and the “barbarians” in the first century BC?