This assignment consists of two questions. You should answer both questions fully. Your responses should be 2-3 pages in length per question (double spaced, Times 12pt. font). In answering the questions you MUST rely exclusively on the course readings and lesson notes. Provide citations in the appropriate Turabian format.

The assignment will be graded using the grading rubric attached to this assignment.


1. According to many observers, one of the key challenges to political development and stability in the Middle East, is the region’s so-called “democracy deficit.” What is the “democracy deficit” that plagues the Middle East? Why has this condition historically affected the region? What accounts for its continued persistence?

2. What are the three most important effects of the Shi’a-Sunni divide on regional stability and security in the Middle East? Make sure to explain your answer.